Uniform Principal & Income Act

Repeals the revised uniform principal and income act (chapter
557, HRS) and establishes a new uniform principal and income act.
(HB2143 HD1)

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES                H.B. NO.           H.D. 1
TWENTIETH LEGISLATURE, 2000                                
STATE OF HAWAII                                            

                   A  BILL  FOR  AN  ACT



 1      SECTION 1.  The Hawaii Revised Statutes is amended by adding
 2 a new chapter to be appropriately designated and to read as
 3 follows:
 4                             "CHAPTER
 6                             ARTICLE 1
 8       -101  Short title.  This chapter may be cited as the
 9 Uniform Principal and Income Act.
10       -102  Definitions.  In this chapter, unless the context
11 otherwise requires:
12      "Accounting period" means a calendar year unless another
13 twelve-month period is selected by a fiduciary.  The term
14 includes a portion of a calendar year or other twelve-month
15 period that begins when an income interest begins or ends when an
16 income interest ends.
17      "Beneficiary" includes, in the case of a decedent's estate,
18 an heir and devisee and, in the case of a trust, an income
19 beneficiary and a remainder beneficiary.
20      "Fiduciary" means a personal representative or a trustee.

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 1 The term includes an executor, administrator, successor personal
 2 representative, special administrator, and a person performing
 3 substantially the same function.
 4      "Income" means money or property a fiduciary receives as the
 5 current return from a principal asset.  The term includes a
 6 portion of the receipts from a sale, exchange, or liquidation of
 7 a principal asset, to the extent provided in article 4.
 8      "Income beneficiary" means a person to whom a trust's net
 9 income is or may be payable.
10      "Income interest" means an income beneficiary's right to
11 receive all or part of the net income, whether the terms of the
12 trust require it to be distributed or authorize it to be
13 distributed in the trustee's discretion.
14      "Mandatory income interest" means an income beneficiary's
15 right to receive net income that the terms of the trust require
16 the fiduciary to distribute.
17      "Net income" means the total receipts allocated to income
18 during an accounting period minus the disbursements made from
19 income during the period.  In this definition, receipts and
20 disbursements include items transferred to or from income during
21 the period under this chapter.
22      "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust,
23 estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company,

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 1 association, joint venture, or any other legal or commercial
 2 entity.  The term does not include a government or governmental
 3 subdivision, agency, or instrumentality.
 4      "Principal" means property held in trust for distribution to
 5 a remainder beneficiary when the trust terminates.
 6      "Remainder beneficiary" means a person, including another
 7 trust, entitled to receive principal when an income interest
 8 ends.
 9      "Terms of a trust" means the manifestation of the intent of
10 a settlor or decedent with respect to the trust, expressed in a
11 manner that admits of its proof in a judicial proceeding, whether
12 by written or spoken words or by conduct.
13      "Trustee" includes an original, additional, or successor
14 trustee, whether or not appointed or confirmed by a court.
15       -103  Fiduciary duties; general principles.(a)  In
16 allocating receipts and disbursements to or between principal and
17 income, and in any matter within the scope of articles 2 and 3, a
18 fiduciary:
19      (1)  Shall administer a trust or estate in accordance with
20           the terms of the trust or the will, even if there is a
21           different provision in this chapter;
22      (2)  May administer a trust or estate by the exercise of a
23           discretionary power of administration given to the

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 1           fiduciary by the terms of the trust or the will, even
 2           if the exercise of the power produces a result
 3           different from a result required or permitted by this
 4           chapter, and no inference that the fiduciary has
 5           improperly exercised the discretion arises from the
 6           fact that the fiduciary has made an alteration contrary
 7           to the provisions of this chapter;
 8      (3)  Shall administer a trust or estate in accordance with
 9           this chapter if the terms of the trust or the will do
10           not contain a different provision or do not give the
11           fiduciary a discretionary power of administration; and
12      (4)  Shall add a receipt or charge a disbursement to
13           principal to the extent that the terms of the trust and
14           this chapter do not provide a rule for allocating the
15           receipt or disbursement to or between principal and
16           income.
17      (b)  In exercising the power to adjust granted by section
18    -104(a) or a discretionary power of administration regarding a
19 matter within the scope of this chapter, whether granted by the
20 terms of a trust, a will, or this chapter, a fiduciary shall
21 administer a trust or estate impartially, based on what is fair
22 and reasonable to all of the beneficiaries, except to the extent
23 that the terms of the trust or the will clearly manifest an

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 1 intention that the fiduciary shall or may favor one or more of
 2 the beneficiaries.  The exercise of discretion in accordance with
 3 this chapter is presumed to be fair and reasonable to all of the
 4 beneficiaries.
 5         -104  Trustee's power to adjust.(a)  Subject to
 6 subsection    -104(b), a trustee may adjust between principal and
 7 income to the extent the trustee considers necessary if all of
 8 the following conditions are satisfied:
 9      (1)  The trustee invests and manages trust assets as a
10           prudent investor;
11      (2)  The terms of the trust describe the amount that may or
12           must be distributed to a beneficiary by referring to
13           the trust's income; and
14      (3)  The trustee determines, after applying the rules in
15           section    -103(a), and considering any power the
16           trustee may have under the trust to invade principal or
17           accumulate income, either of the following conditions
18           exist:
19           (A)  The trustee is unable to administer a trust or
20                estate impartially based on what is fair and
21                reasonable to all beneficiaries if no clear
22                intention to favor one or more beneficiaries is
23                manifested in the will or trust; or

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 1           (B)  In the case of a will or trust that clearly
 2                manifests an intent to favor one or more
 3                beneficiaries, the trustee is unable to favor such
 4                beneficiaries without diminishing the rights of
 5                other beneficiaries.
 6      (b)  In deciding whether and to what extent to exercise the
 7 power conferred by subsection (a), a trustee shall consider all
 8 of the factors relevant to the trust and its beneficiaries,
 9 including the following factors to the extent they are relevant:
10      (1)  The nature, purpose, and expected duration of the
11           trust;
12      (2)  The intent of the settlor;
13      (3)  The identity and circumstances of the beneficiaries;
14      (4)  The needs for liquidity, regularity of income, and
15           preservation and appreciation of capital;
16      (5)  The assets held in the trust; the extent to which they
17           consist of financial assets, interests in closely held
18           enterprises, tangible and intangible personal property,
19           or real property; the extent to which an asset is used
20           by a beneficiary; and whether an asset was purchased by
21           the trustee or received from the settlor;
22      (6)  The net amount allocated to income under the other
23           sections of this chapter and the increase or decrease

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 1           in the value of the principal assets, which the trustee
 2           may estimate as to assets for which market values are
 3           not readily available;
 4      (7)  Whether and to what extent the terms of the trust give
 5           the trustee the power to invade principal or accumulate
 6           income or prohibit the trustee from invading principal
 7           or accumulating income, and the extent to which the
 8           trustee has exercised a power from time to time to
 9           invade principal or accumulate income;
10      (8)  The actual and anticipated effect of economic
11           conditions on principal and income and effects of
12           inflation and deflation; and
13      (9)  The anticipated tax consequences of an adjustment.
14      (c)  A trustee may not make an adjustment:
15      (1)  That diminishes the income interest in a trust that
16           requires all of the income to be paid at least annually
17           to a surviving spouse and for which an estate tax or
18           gift tax marital deduction would be allowed, in whole
19           or in part, if the trustee did not have the power to
20           make the adjustment;
21      (2)  That reduces the actuarial value of the income interest
22           in a trust to which a person transfers property with
23           the intent to qualify for a gift tax exclusion;

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                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1      (3)  That changes the amount payable to a beneficiary as a
 2           fixed annuity or a fixed fraction of the value of the
 3           trust's assets;
 4      (4)  From any amount that is permanently set aside for
 5           charitable purposes under a will or the terms of a
 6           trust, unless both income and principal are so set
 7           aside; provided that a trustee may transfer income to
 8           principal only upon a court order;
 9      (5)  If possessing or exercising the power to make an
10           adjustment may cause an individual to be treated as the
11           owner of all or part of the trust for income tax
12           purposes, and the individual would not be treated as
13           the owner if the trustee did not possess the power to
14           make an adjustment;
15      (6)  If possessing or exercising the power to make an
16           adjustment causes all or part of the trust assets to be
17           included for estate tax purposes in the estate of an
18           individual who has the power to remove a trustee or
19           appoint a trustee, or both, and the assets would not be
20           included in the estate of the individual if the trustee
21           did not have the power to make an adjustment; or
22      (7)  If the trustee is a beneficiary of the trust.
23      (d)  If subsection (c)(5), (6), or (7) applies to a trustee

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 1 and there is more than one trustee, a co-trustee to whom the
 2 provision does not apply may make the adjustment, unless the
 3 exercise of the power by the remaining trustee or trustees is
 4 clearly not permitted by the terms of the trust.
 5      (e)  A trustee may release the entire power conferred by
 6 subsection (a) or may release only the power to adjust from
 7 income to principal or the power to adjust from principal to
 8 income if the trustee is uncertain about whether possessing or
 9 exercising the power will cause a result described in subsection
10 (c)(1) through (6) or if the trustee determines that possessing
11 or exercising the power will or may deprive the trust of a tax
12 benefit or impose a tax burden not described in subsection (c).
13 The release may be permanent or for a specified period, including
14 a period measured by the life of an individual.
15      (f)  Terms of a trust that limit the power of a trustee to
16 make an adjustment between principal and income are not contrary
17 to this section, unless it is clear from the terms of the trust
18 that the terms are intended to deny the trustee the power of
19 adjustment conferred by subsection (a).
20      (g)  Nothing in this section or in this chapter is intended
21 to create or imply a duty to make an adjustment, and the trustee
22 is not liable for not considering whether to make an adjustment
23 or for choosing not to make an adjustment.

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 1         -105  Notice of proposed action.(a)  A trustee may
 2 give a notice of proposed action regarding a matter governed by
 3 the chapter as provided in this section.  For the purpose of this
 4 section, a proposed action includes a course of action and a
 5 decision not to take action.
 6      (b)  The trustee shall mail notice of the proposed action to
 7 all adult beneficiaries who are receiving, or are entitled to
 8 receive, income under this trust or to receive a distribution of
 9 principal if the trust were terminated at the time the notice is
10 given.
11      (c)  Notice of proposed action need not be given to any
12 person who consents in writing to the proposed action.  The
13 consent may be executed at any time before or after the proposed
14 action is taken.
15      (d)  The notice of proposed action shall state that it is
16 given pursuant to this section and shall state all of the
17 following:
18      (1)  The name and mailing address of the trustee;
19      (2)  The name and telephone number of a person who may be
20           contacted for additional information;
21      (3)  A description of the action proposed to be taken and an
22           explanation of the reasons for the action;
23      (4)  The time within which objections to the proposed action

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 1           can be made, which shall be at least thirty days from
 2           the mailing of the notice of proposed action; and
 3      (5)  The date on or after which the proposed action may be
 4           taken or is effective.
 5      (e)  A beneficiary may object to the proposed action by
 6 mailing a written objection to the trustee at the address stated
 7 in the notice of proposed action within the time period specified
 8 in the notice of proposed action.
 9      (f)  A trustee is not liable to a beneficiary for an action
10 regarding a matter governed by this chapter if the trustee does
11 not receive a written objection to the proposed action from the
12 beneficiary within the applicable period and the other
13 requirements of this section are satisfied.  If no beneficiary
14 entitle to notice objects under this section, the trustee is not
15 liable to any current or future beneficiary with respect to the
16 proposed action.
17      (g)  If the trustee receives a written objection within the
18 applicable period, either the trustee or a beneficiary may
19 petition the court to have the proposed action taken as proposed,
20 taken with modifications, or denied.  In the proceeding, a
21 beneficiary objecting to the proposed action has the burden of
22 proving that the trustee's proposed action constitutes an abuse
23 of discretion.  A beneficiary who has not objected is not

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 1 estopped from opposing the proposed action in the proceeding.  If
 2 the trustee decides not to implement the proposed action, the
 3 trustee shall notify the beneficiaries of the decision not to
 4 take the action and the reasons for the decision, and the
 5 trustee's decision not to implement the proposed action does not
 6 itself give rise to liability to any current or future
 7 beneficiary.  A beneficiary may petition the court to have the
 8 action taken, and has the burden of proving that not taking the
 9 action is an abuse of discretion.
10         -106  Proceedings regarding trustee's power to adjust.
11 In a proceeding with respect to a trustee's exercise or
12 nonexercise of the power to make an adjustment under section
13    -104, the sole remedy is to direct, deny, or revise an
14 adjustment between principal and income.
15                             ARTICLE 2
17         -201  Determination and distribution of net income.
18 After a decedent dies, in the case of an estate, or after an
19 income interest in a trust ends, the following rules apply:
20      (1)  A fiduciary of an estate or a terminating income
21           interest shall determine the amount of net income and
22           net principal receipts received from property
23           specifically given to a beneficiary under the rules in

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 1           articles 3 through 5 which apply to trustees and the
 2           rules in paragraph (5).  The fiduciary shall distribute
 3           the net income and net principal receipts to the
 4           beneficiary who is to receive the specific property.
 5      (2)  A fiduciary shall determine the remaining net income of
 6           a decedent's estate or a terminating income interest
 7           under the rules in articles 3 through 5 which apply to
 8           trustees and by:
 9           (A)  Including in net income all income from property
10                used to discharge liabilities;
11           (B)  Paying from income or principal, in the
12                fiduciary's discretion: fees of attorneys,
13                accountants, and fiduciaries; court costs and
14                other expenses of administration; and interest on
15                death taxes; provided that the fiduciary may pay
16                those expenses from income of property passing to
17                a trust for which the fiduciary claims an estate
18                tax marital or charitable deduction only to the
19                extent that the payment of those expenses from
20                income will not cause the loss of the deduction;
21                and
22           (C)  Paying from principal all other disbursements made
23                or incurred in connection with the settlement of a

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 1                decedent's estate or the winding up of a
 2                terminating income interest, including debts,
 3                funeral expenses, disposition of remains, family
 4                allowances, and death taxes and related penalties
 5                that are apportioned to the estate or terminating
 6                income interest by the will, the terms of the
 7                trust, or applicable law.
 8      (3)  A fiduciary shall distribute to a beneficiary who
 9           receives a pecuniary amount outright the interest or
10           other amount, provided by the will, the terms of the
11           trust, or applicable law, from net income determined
12           under paragraph (2) or from principal to the extent
13           that net income is insufficient.  If a beneficiary is
14           to receive a pecuniary amount outright from a trust
15           after an income interest ends and no interest or other
16           amount is provided for by the terms of the trust or
17           applicable law, the fiduciary shall distribute the
18           interest or other amount to which the beneficiary would
19           be entitled under applicable law if the pecuniary
20           amount were required to be paid under a will.
21      (4)  A fiduciary shall distribute the net income remaining
22           after distributions required by paragraph (3) in the
23           manner described in section    -202 to all other

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 1           beneficiaries, including a beneficiary who receives a
 2           pecuniary amount in trust, even if the beneficiary
 3           holds an unqualified power to withdraw assets from the
 4           trust or other presently exercisable general power of
 5           appointment over the trust.
 6      (5)  A fiduciary may not reduce principal or income receipts
 7           from property described in paragraph (1) because of a
 8           payment described in section    -501 or    -502 to the
 9           extent that the will, the terms of the trust, or
10           applicable law requires the fiduciary to make the
11           payment from assets other than the property or to the
12           extent that the fiduciary recovers or expects to
13           recover the payment from a third party.  The property's
14           net income and principal receipts are determined by
15           including all of the amounts the fiduciary receives or
16           pays with respect to the property, whether those
17           amounts accrued or became due before, on, or after the
18           date of a decedent's death or an income interest's
19           terminating event, and by making a reasonable provision
20           for amounts that the fiduciary believes the estate or
21           terminating income interest may become obligated to pay
22           after the property is distributed.
23         -202  Distribution to residuary and remainder



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 1 beneficiaries.(a)  Each beneficiary described in section
 2    -201(4) is entitled to receive a portion of the net income
 3 equal to the beneficiary's fractional interest in undistributed
 4 principal assets, using values as of the distribution date.  If a
 5 fiduciary makes more than one distribution of assets to
 6 beneficiaries to whom this section applies, each beneficiary,
 7 including one who does not receive part of the distribution, is
 8 entitled, as of each distribution date, to the net income the
 9 fiduciary has received after the date of death or terminating
10 event or earlier distribution date but has not distributed as of
11 the current distribution date.
12      (b)  In determining a beneficiary's share of net income, the
13 following rules apply:
14      (1)  The beneficiary is entitled to receive a portion of the
15           net income equal to the beneficiary's fractional
16           interest in the undistributed principal assets
17           immediately before the distribution date, including
18           assets that later may be sold to meet principal
19           obligations;
20      (2)  The beneficiary's fractional interest in the
21           undistributed principal assets must be calculated
22           without regard to property specifically given to a
23           beneficiary and property required to pay pecuniary

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 1           amounts not in trust;
 2      (3)  The beneficiary's fractional interest in the
 3           undistributed principal assets must be calculated on
 4           the basis of the aggregate value of those assets as of
 5           the distribution date without reducing the value by any
 6           unpaid principal obligation; and
 7      (4)  The distribution date for purposes of this section may
 8           be the date as of which the fiduciary calculates the
 9           value of the assets if that date is reasonably near the
10           date on which assets are actually distributed.
11      (c)  The rules in this section apply to net gain or loss
12 realized after the date of death or terminating event or earlier
13 distribution date from the disposition of a principal asset if
14 this section applies to the income from the asset.
15      (d)  If a fiduciary does not distribute all of the collected
16 but undistributed net income or gain to each person as of a
17 distribution date, the fiduciary shall maintain appropriate
18 records showing the interest of each beneficiary in that net
19 income or gain.
20                             ARTICLE 3
22         -301  When right to income begins and ends.(a)  An
23 income beneficiary is entitled to net income from the date on

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 1 which the income interest begins.  An income interest begins on
 2 the date specified in the terms of the trust or, if no date is
 3 specified, on the date an asset becomes subject to a trust or
 4 successive income interest.
 5      (b)  An asset becomes subject to a trust:
 6      (1)  On the date it is transferred to the trust in the case
 7           of an asset that is transferred to a trust during the
 8           transferor's life;
 9      (2)  On the date of a testator's death in the case of an
10           asset that becomes subject to a trust by reason of a
11           will, even if there is an intervening period of
12           administration of the testator's estate; or
13      (3)  On the date of an individual's death in the case of an
14           asset that is transferred to a fiduciary by a third
15           party because of the individual's death.
16      (c)  An asset becomes subject to a successive income
17 interest on the day after the preceding income interest ends, as
18 determined under subsection (d), even if there is an intervening
19 period of administration to wind up the preceding income
20 interest.
21      (d)  An income interest ends on the day before an income
22 beneficiary dies or another terminating event occurs.  For
23 purposes of this chapter, an income interest also ends on the

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 1 last day of a period during which there is no beneficiary to whom
 2 a trustee may distribute income.
 3         -302  Apportionment of receipts and disbursements when
 4 decedent dies or income interest begins.(a)  An income receipt
 5 or disbursement other than one to which section    -201(1)
 6 applies must be allocated to principal if its due date occurs
 7 before a decedent dies in the case of an estate or before an
 8 income interest begins in the case of a trust or successive
 9 income interest.
10      (b)  An income receipt or disbursement must be allocated to
11 income if its due date occurs on or after the date on which a
12 decedent dies or an income interest begins and it is a periodic
13 due date.  An income receipt or disbursement must be treated as
14 accruing from day to day if its due date is not periodic or it
15 has no due date.  The portion of the receipt or disbursement
16 accruing before the date on which a decedent dies or an income
17 interest begins must be allocated to principal and the balance
18 must be allocated to income.
19      (c)  An item of income or an obligation is due on the date
20 on which the payor is required to make a payment.  If there is no
21 stated payment date, there is no due date for the purposes of
22 this chapter.  Distributions to shareholders or other owners from
23 an entity to which section    -401 applies are deemed to be due

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                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 on the date fixed by the entity for determining who is entitled
 2 to receive the distribution or, if no date is fixed, on the
 3 declaration date for the distribution.  A due date is periodic
 4 for receipts or disbursements that shall be paid at regular
 5 intervals under a lease or an obligation to pay interest or if an
 6 entity customarily makes distributions at regular intervals.             
 7         -303  Apportionment when income interest ends.(a)  In
 8 this section, "undistributed income" means net income received
 9 before the date on which an income interest ends.  The term does
10 not include an item of income or expense that is due or accrued
11 or net income that has been added or is required to be added to
12 principal pursuant to the terms of the trust.
13      (b)  When a mandatory income interest ends, the trustee
14 shall pay to a mandatory income beneficiary who survives that
15 date, or the estate of a deceased mandatory income beneficiary
16 whose death causes the interest to end, the beneficiary's share
17 of the undistributed income that is not disposed of pursuant to
18 the terms of the trust, unless the beneficiary has an unqualified
19 power to revoke more than five per cent of the trust immediately
20 before the income interest ends.  In the latter case, the
21 undistributed income from the portion of the trust that may be
22 revoked shall be added to principal.
23      (c)  When a trustee's obligation to pay a fixed annuity or a

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 1 fixed fraction of the value of the trust's assets ends, the
 2 trustee shall prorate the final payment if and to the extent
 3 required by applicable law to accomplish a purpose of the trust
 4 or its settlor relating to income, gift, estate, or other tax
 5 requirements.
 6                             ARTICLE 4
 8                  PART I.  RECEIPTS FROM ENTITIES
 9         -401  Character of receipts.(a)  In this section,
10 "entity" means a corporation, partnership, joint venture, limited
11 liability company, regulated investment company, real estate
12 investment trust, common trust fund, and any other organization
13 in which a trustee has an interest other than a trust or estate
14 to which section    -402 applies or a business or activity to
15 which section    -403 applies, or an asset backed security to
16 which section    -415 applies.
17      (b)  Except as otherwise provided in this section, money
18 received by a trustee from an entity must be allocated to income.
19      (c)  Receipts from an entity which must be allocated to
20 principal include:
21      (1)  Property other than money;
22      (2)  Money received in one distribution or a series of
23           related distributions in exchange for part or all of a

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 1           trust's interest in the entity;
 2      (3)  Money received in total or partial liquidation of the
 3           entity; and
 4      (4)  Money received from an entity that is a regulated
 5           investment company or a real estate investment trust if
 6           the money distributed is a capital gain dividend for
 7           federal income tax purposes.
 8      (d)  Money is received in partial liquidation:
 9      (1)  To the extent that the entity, at or near the time of a
10           distribution, indicates that it is a distribution in
11           partial liquidation; or
12      (2)  If the total amount of money or property received in a
13           distribution or series of related distributions is
14           greater than twenty per cent of the entity's gross
15           assets, as shown by the entity's year-end financial
16           statements immediately preceding the initial receipt.
17      (e)  Money is not received in partial liquidation, nor shall
18 it be taken into account under subsection (d)(2), to the extent
19 that it does not exceed the amount of income tax that a trustee
20 or beneficiary is required to pay on taxable income of the entity
21 that distributes the money.
22      (f)  A trustee may rely upon a statement made by an entity
23 about the source or character of a distribution if the statement

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 1 is made at or near the time of distribution by the entity's board
 2 of directors or other person or group of persons authorized to
 3 exercise powers to pay money or transfer property comparable to
 4 those of a corporation's board of directors.
 5         -402  Distribution from trust or estate.  Subject to the
 6 terms of a recipient trust, an amount received as a distribution
 7 of income from a trust or an estate in which the trust has an
 8 interest other than a purchased interest must be allocated to
 9 income.  An amount received as a distribution of principal from
10 such a trust or estate must be allocated to principal.  If a
11 trustee purchases an interest in a trust that is an investment
12 entity, or a decedent or donor transfers an interest in such a
13 trust to a trustee, section    -401 or    -415 applies to a
14 receipt from the trust.
15         -403  Business and other activities conducted by
16 trustee.(a)  If a trustee who conducts a business or other
17 activity determines that it is in the best interest of all the
18 beneficiaries to account separately for the business or activity
19 instead of accounting for it as part of the trust's general
20 accounting records, the trustee may maintain separate accounting
21 records for its transactions, whether or not its assets are
22 segregated from other trust assets.
23      (b)  A trustee who accounts separately for a business or

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 1 other activity may determine the extent to which its net cash
 2 receipts must be retained for working capital, the acquisition or
 3 replacement of fixed assets, or other reasonably foreseeable
 4 needs of the business or activity, and the extent to which the
 5 remaining net cash receipts are accounted for as principal or
 6 income in the trust's general accounting records.  If a trustee
 7 sells assets of the business or other activity, other than in the
 8 ordinary course of the business or activity, the trustee shall
 9 account for the net amount received as principal in the trust's
10 general accounting records to the extent the trustee determines
11 that the amount received is no longer required in the conduct of
12 the business.
13      (c)  Activities for which the trustee may maintain separate
14 accounting records include:
15      (1)  Retail, manufacturing, service, and other traditional
16           business activities;
17      (2)  Farming;
18      (3)  Raising and selling livestock and other animals;
19      (4)  Management of rental properties;
20      (5)  Extraction of minerals and other natural resources;
21      (6)  Timber operations; and
22      (7)  Activities to which section    -415 applies.

Page 25                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1         -404  Principal receipts.  The following must be
 2 allocated to principal:
 3      (1)  To the extent not allocated to income under this
 4           chapter, assets received from a:
 5           (A)  Transferor during the transferor's lifetime;
 6           (B)  Decedent's estate;
 7           (C)  Trust with a terminating income interest; or
 8           (D)  Payor pursuant to a contract naming the trust or
 9                its trustee as beneficiary;
10      (2)  Money or other property received from the sale,
11           exchange, liquidation, or change in form of a principal
12           asset, including realized profit, subject to this
13           article;
14      (3)  Amounts recovered from third parties to reimburse the
15           trust because of disbursements described in section
16              -502(a)(7) or for other reasons to the extent not
17           based on the loss of income;
18      (4)  Proceeds of property taken by eminent domain, but a
19           separate award made for the loss of income with respect
20           to an accounting period during which a current income
21           beneficiary had a mandatory income interest shall be
22           classified as income;
23      (5)  Net income received in an accounting period during

Page 26                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           which there is no beneficiary to whom a trustee may or
 2           must distribute income; and
 3      (6)  Other receipts as provided in part III.
 4         -405  Rental property.  To the extent that a trustee
 5 accounts for receipts from rental property pursuant to this
 6 section, an amount received as rent of real or personal property,
 7 including an amount received for cancellation or renewal of a
 8 lease, must be allocated to income.  An amount received as a
 9 refundable deposit, including a security deposit or a deposit
10 that is to be applied as rent for future periods, must be added
11 to principal and held subject to the terms of the lease and is
12 not available for distribution to a beneficiary until the
13 trustee's contractual obligations have been satisfied with
14 respect to that amount.
15         -406  Obligation to pay money.(a)  An amount received
16 as interest, whether determined at a fixed, variable, or floating
17 rate, on an obligation to pay money to the trustee, including an
18 amount received as consideration for prepaying principal, must be
19 allocated to income without any provision for amortization of
20 premium.
21      (b)  An amount received from the sale, redemption, or other
22 disposition of an obligation to pay money to the trustee more
23 than one year after it is purchased or acquired by the trustee,

Page 27                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 including an obligation whose purchase price or value when it is
 2 acquired is less than its value at maturity, must be allocated to
 3 principal.  If the obligation matures within one year after it is
 4 purchased or acquired by the trustee, an amount received in
 5 excess of its purchase price or its value when acquired by the
 6 trust must be allocated to income.
 7      (c)  This section does not apply to obligations to which
 8 sections    -409 through    -412,    -414, and    -415 apply.
 9         -407  Insurance policies and similar contracts.(a)
10 Except as provided in subsection (b), proceeds from a life
11 insurance policy or other contract whose beneficiary is the trust
12 or its trustee, including a contract that insures the trust or
13 its trustee against loss for the damage or destruction of, or
14 loss of title to, a principal asset must be allocated to
15 principal.  The trustee shall allocate dividends on an insurance
16 policy to income if the premiums on the policy are paid from
17 income, and to principal if the premiums are paid from principal.
18 This section does not apply to a contract to which section
19    -409 applies.
20      (b)  Insurance proceeds must be allocated to income if they
21 are from a policy that insures the trustee against the loss of
22 occupancy or other use by an income beneficiary, the loss of
23 income, or, subject to section    -403, the loss of profits from

Page 28                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 a business.
 3         -408  Insubstantial allocations not required.  If a
 4 trustee determines that an allocation between principal and
 5 income required by sections    -409 through    -412 or section
 6    -425 is insubstantial, the trustee may allocate the entire
 7 amount to principal if one of the circumstances described in
 8 section    -104(c) does not apply to such an allocation.  This
 9 power may be exercised by a co-trustee in the circumstances
10 described in section    -104(d), and it may be released for the
11 reasons and in the manner described in section    -104(e).  An
12 allocation is presumed to be insubstantial if:
13      (1)  The amount of the allocation would increase or decrease
14           an accounting period's net income, as determined before
15           the allocation, by less than ten per cent; or
16      (2)  The value of the asset producing the receipt for which
17           the allocation would be made is less than ten per cent
18           of the total value of the trust's assets at the
19           beginning of the accounting period.
20         -409  Deferred compensation, annuities, and similar
21 payments.(a)  This section applies to payments that a trustee
22 may receive over a fixed number of years or during the life of
23 one or more individuals because of services rendered or property

Page 29                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 transferred to the payor in exchange for future payments.  The
 2 payments include those made in money or property from the payor's
 3 general assets or from a separate fund created by the payor,
 4 including a private or commercial annuity, an individual
 5 retirement account, and a pension, profit sharing, stock bonus,
 6 or stock ownership plan.  This section does not apply to payments
 7 to which section    -410 applies.
 8      (b)  To the extent that a payment is characterized as
 9 interest or a dividend or a payment made in lieu of interest or a
10 dividend, it must be allocated to income.  The balance of the
11 payment and any other payment received in the same accounting
12 period that is not characterized as interest, a dividend, or an
13 equivalent payment, must be allocated to principal.
14      (c)  If no part of a payment is characterized as interest, a
15 dividend, or an equivalent payment, and all or part of the
16 payment is required to be made, a trustee shall allocate to
17 income ten per cent of the part that is required to be made
18 during the accounting period and the balance to principal.  If no
19 part of a payment is required to be made or the payment received
20 is the entire amount to which the trustee is entitled, the entire
21 payment must be allocated to principal.  For purposes of this
22 subsection, a payment is not "required to be made" to the extent
23 that it is made because the trustee exercises a right of

Page 30                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 withdrawal.
 2      (d)  If, to obtain an estate tax marital deduction for a
 3 trust, a trustee must allocate more of a payment to income than
 4 provided for by this section, the trustee shall allocate to
 5 income the additional amount necessary to obtain the marital
 6 deduction.
 7         -410  Liquidating asset.(a)  In this section,
 8 "liquidating asset" means an asset whose value will diminish or
 9 terminate because the asset is expected to produce receipts for a
10 period of limited duration.  The term includes leaseholds,
11 patents, trademarks, copyrights, royalty rights, and rights to
12 receive payments during a period of more than one year under an
13 arrangement that does not provide for the payment of interest on
14 the unpaid balance.  The term does not include deferred
15 compensation that is subject to section    -409, natural
16 resources that are subject to section    -411, timber that is
17 subject to section    -412, an activity that is subject to
18 section    -414, an asset subject to section    -415, or any
19 asset for which the trustee establishes a reserve for
20 depreciation under section    -503.
21      (b)  A trustee shall allocate to income ten per cent of the
22 receipts from a liquidating asset and the balance to principal.
23         -411  Minerals, water, and other natural resources.(a)

Page 31                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 Receipts from an interest in minerals or other natural resources
 2 must be allocated as follows:
 3      (1)  If received as nominal delay rental or nominal annual
 4           rent on a lease, a receipt must be allocated to income.
 5      (2)  If received from a production payment, a receipt must
 6           be allocated to income if and to the extent that the
 7           agreement creating the production payment provides a
 8           factor for interest or its equivalent.  The balance
 9           must be allocated to principal.
10      (3)  If an amount received as a royalty, bonus, or delay
11           rental is more than nominal, ninety per cent must be
12           allocated to principal and the balance to income.
13      (4)  If an amount is received from a working interest or any
14           other interest not provided for in paragraph (1), (2),
15           or (3), ninety per cent of the net amount received must
16           be allocated to principal and the balance to income.
17      (b)  An amount received on account of an interest in water
18 that is renewable must be allocated to income.  If the water is
19 not renewable, ninety per cent of the amount must be allocated to
20 principal and the balance to income.
21      (c)  This chapter applies without regard to whether a
22 decedent or donor was extracting minerals, water, or other
23 natural resources before the interest became subject to the

Page 32                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 trust.
 2      (d)  If a trust owns an interest in minerals, water, or
 3 other natural resources on the effective date of this chapter,
 4 the trustee may allocate receipts from the interest as provided
 5 in this section or in the manner used by the trustee before the
 6 effective date of this chapter.  If the trust acquires an
 7 interest in minerals, water, or other natural resources after the
 8 effective date of this chapter, the trustee shall allocate
 9 receipts from the interest as provided in this section.
10         -412  Timber.(a)  A trustee may account for net
11 receipts from the sale of timber and related products under
12 subsection (b), unless the trustee determines that net receipts
13 are insubstantial and allocates the net receipts to principal
14 under section    -408.  If a trust owns more than one block of
15 timber land, the trustee may use different methods to account for
16 net receipts from different blocks.
17      (b)  If a trustee does not account under section    -408 for
18 net receipts from the sale of timber and related products or
19 allocate the net receipts to principal because they are
20 insubstantial, the trustee shall allocate the net receipts:
21      (1)  To income to the extent that the amount of timber
22           removed from the land does not exceed the rate of
23           growth of the block as a whole during the accounting

Page 33                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           periods in which a beneficiary has a mandatory income
 2           interest;
 3      (2)  To principal to the extent that the amount of timber
 4           removed from the land exceeds the block's rate of
 5           growth or the net receipts are from the sale of
 6           standing timber;
 7      (3)  To or between income and principal if the net receipts
 8           are from the lease of timberland or from a contract to
 9           cut timber from land owned by a trust, by determining
10           the amount of timber removed from the land under the
11           lease or contract and applying the rules in paragraphs
12           (1) and (2); or
13      (4)  To principal to the extent that advance payments,
14           bonuses, and other payments are not allocated pursuant
15           to paragraph (1), (2), or (3).
16      (c)  In determining the net receipts from the sale of
17 timber, a trustee shall deduct and transfer to principal a
18 reasonable amount for depletion.
19      (d)  This chapter applies regardless of whether a decedent
20 or transferor was harvesting timber from the property before it
21 became subject to the trust.
22      (e)  If a trust owns an interest in timberland on the
23 effective date of this chapter, the trustee may allocate net

Page 34                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 receipts from the sale of timber and related products as provided
 2 in this section or in the manner used by the trustee before the
 3 effective date of this chapter.  If the trust acquires an
 4 interest in timberland after the effective date of this chapter,
 5 the trustee shall allocate net receipts from the sale of timber
 6 and related products as provided in this section.
 7         -413  Property not productive of income.(a)  If a
 8 marital deduction is allowed for all or part of a trust whose
 9 assets consist substantially of property that does not provide
10 the surviving spouse with sufficient income from or use of the
11 trust assets, and if the amounts that the trustee transfers from
12 principal to income under section    -104 and distributes to the
13 spouse from principal pursuant to the terms of the trust are
14 insufficient to provide the spouse with the beneficial enjoyment
15 required to obtain the marital deduction, the spouse may require
16 the trustee to make property productive of income, convert
17 property within a reasonable time, or exercise the power
18 conferred by section    -104(a).  The trustee may decide which
19 action or combination of actions to take.
20      (b)  In all other cases, proceeds from the sale or other
21 disposition of an asset are principal without regard to the
22 amount of income the asset produces during any accounting period.
23         -414  Derivatives and options.(a)  In this section,

Page 35                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 "derivative" means a contract or financial instrument or a
 2 combination of contracts and financial instruments which gives a
 3 trust the right or obligation to participate in some or all
 4 changes in the price of a tangible or intangible asset or group
 5 of assets, or changes in a rate, an index of prices or rates, or
 6 other market indicator for an asset or a group of assets.
 7      (b)  To the extent that a trustee does not account under
 8 section    -403 for transactions in derivatives, receipts from
 9 and disbursement made in connection with those transactions must
10 be allocated to principal.
11      (c)  If a trustee grants an option to buy property from the
12 trust, whether or not the trust owns the property when the option
13 is granted, grants an option that permits another person to sell
14 property to the trust, or acquires an option to buy property for
15 the trust or an option to sell an asset owned by the trust, and
16 the trustee or other owner of the asset is required to deliver
17 the asset if the option is exercised, an amount received for
18 granting the option must be allocated to principal, and an amount
19 paid to acquire the option must be paid from principal.  A gain
20 or loss realized upon the exercise of an option, including an
21 option granted to a settlor of the trust for services rendered,
22 must be allocated to principal.
23         -415  Asset-backed securities.(a)  In this section,

Page 36                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 "asset-backed security" means an asset whose value is based upon
 2 the right it gives the owner to receive distributions from the
 3 proceeds of financial assets that provide collateral for the
 4 security.  The term includes an asset that gives the owner the
 5 right to receive only the interest or other current return from
 6 the collateral financial assets or only the proceeds from the
 7 capital investment in the collateral financial assets.  It does
 8 not include an asset to which section    -401 or    -409 applies.
 9      (b)  If a trust receives a payment from the interest or
10 other current return and the capital investment of the collateral
11 financial assets, the trustee shall allocate to income the
12 portion of a payment that the payor identifies as being from the
13 interest or other current return, and shall allocate the balance
14 of the payment to principal.
15      (c)  If a trust receives one or more payments in exchange
16 for the trust's entire interest in an asset-backed security in
17 one accounting period, the trustee shall allocate the payments to
18 principal.  If a payment is one of a series of payments that will
19 result in the liquidation of the trust's interest in the security
20 over more than one accounting period, the trustee shall allocate
21 ten per cent of the payment to income and the balance to
22 principal.
23                             ARTICLE 5

Page 37                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 2         -501  Disbursements from income.  Unless otherwise
 3 governed by statutory fees or unless the instrument provides for
 4 it, trustee shall make the following disbursements from income to
 5 the extent that they are not disbursements to which section    -
 6 201(2)(B) or (C) applies:
 7      (1)  One-half of the regular compensation of the trustee and
 8           of any person providing investment advisory or
 9           custodial services to the trustee;
10      (2)  One-half of all expenses for accountings, judicial
11           proceedings, or other matters that involve both the
12           income and remainder interests;
13      (3)  All of the other ordinary expenses incurred in
14           connection with the administration, management, or
15           preservation of trust property and the distribution of
16           income, including interest, ordinary repairs, regularly
17           recurring taxes assessed against principal, and
18           expenses of a proceeding or other matter that concerns
19           primarily the income interest; and
20      (4)  Recurring premiums on insurance covering the loss of a
21           principal asset or the loss of income from or use of
22           the asset.
23         -502  Disbursements from principal.(a)  Unless

Page 38                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 otherwise governed by statutory fees or unless the instrument
 2 provides for it, a trustee shall make the following disbursements
 3 from principal:
 4      (1)  The remaining one-half of the disbursements described
 5           in section    -501(1) and (2);
 6      (2)  All of the trustee's compensation calculated on
 7           principal as an acceptance, distribution, or
 8           termination fee, and disbursements made to prepare
 9           property for sale;
10      (3)  Payments on the principal of a trust debt;
11      (4)  Expenses of a proceeding that concerns primarily
12           principal, including a proceeding to construe the trust
13           or to protect the trust or its property;
14      (5)  Insurance premiums paid on a policy not described in
15           section    -501(4) of which the trust is the owner and
16           beneficiary;
17      (6)  Estate, inheritance, and other transfer taxes,
18           including penalties, apportioned to the trust; and
19      (7)  Disbursements related to environmental matters,
20           including reclamation, assessing environmental
21           conditions, remedying and removing environmental
22           contamination, monitoring remedial activities and the
23           release of substances, preventing future releases of

Page 39                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           substances, collecting amounts from persons liable or
 2           potentially liable for the costs of those activities,
 3           penalties imposed under environmental laws, rules, or
 4           regulations and other payments made to comply with
 5           those laws, rules, or regulations, statutory or common
 6           law claims by third parties, and defending claims based
 7           on environmental matters.
 8      (b)  If a principal asset is encumbered with an obligation
 9 that requires income from that asset to be paid directly to the
10 creditor, the trustee shall transfer from principal to income an
11 amount equal to the income paid to the creditor in reduction of
12 the obligation's principal balance.
13         -503  Transfers from income to principal for
14 depreciation.(a)  In this section, "depreciation" means a
15 reduction in value of a fixed asset having a useful life of more
16 than one year, due to wear, tear, decay, corrosion, or gradual
17 obsolescence.
18      (b)  A trustee may transfer to principal a reasonable amount
19 of the net cash receipts from a principal asset that is subject
20 to depreciation, but a transfer may not be made for depreciation:
21      (1)  Of that portion of real property used or available for
22           use by a beneficiary as a residence or of tangible
23           personal property held or made available for the

Page 40                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           personal use or enjoyment of a beneficiary;
 2      (2)  During the administration of a decedent's estate; or
 3      (3)  Under this section if the trustee is accounting under
 4           section    -403 for the business or activity in which
 5           the asset is used.
 6      (c)  An amount transferred to principal need not be held as
 7 a separate fund.
 8         -504  Transfers from income to reimburse principal.(a)
 9 If a trustee makes or expects to make a principal disbursement
10 described in this section, the trustee may transfer an
11 appropriate amount from income to principal in one or more
12 accounting periods to reimburse principal or to provide a reserve
13 for future principal disbursements.
14      (b)  Principal disbursements to which subsection (a) applies
15 include the following, but only to the extent that the trustee
16 has not been and does not expect to be reimbursed by a third
17 party:
18      (1)  An amount chargeable to income but paid from principal
19           because it is unusually large, including extraordinary
20           repairs;
21      (2)  A capital improvement to a principal asset, whether in
22           the form of changes to an existing asset or the
23           construction of a new asset, including special

Page 41                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           assessments;
 2      (3)  Disbursements made to prepare property for rental,
 3           including tenant allowances, leasehold improvements,
 4           and broker's commissions;
 5      (4)  Periodic payments on an obligation secured by a
 6           principal asset to the extent that the amount
 7           transferred from income to principal for depreciation
 8           is less than the periodic payments; and
 9      (5)  Disbursements described in section    -502(a)(7).
10      (c)  If the asset whose ownership gives rise to the
11 disbursements becomes subject to a successive income interest
12 after an income interest ends, a trustee may continue to transfer
13 amounts from income to principal as provided in subsection (a).
14         -505  Income taxes.(a)  A tax required to be paid by a
15 trustee based on receipts allocated to income must be paid from
16 income.
17      (b)  A tax required to be paid by a trustee based on
18 receipts allocated to principal must be paid from principal, even
19 if the tax is called an income tax by the taxing authority.
20      (c)  A tax required to be paid by a trustee on the trust's
21 share of an entity's taxable income must be paid proportionately:
22      (1)  From income to the extent that receipts from the entity
23           are allocated to income; and

Page 42                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1      (2)  From principal to the extent that:
 2           (A)  Receipts from the entity are allocated to
 3                principal; and
 4           (B)  The trust's share of the entity's taxable income
 5                exceeds the total receipts in paragraphs (1) and
 6                (2)(A).
 7      (d)  For purposes of this section, receipts allocated to
 8 principal or income shall be reduced by the amount distributed to
 9 a beneficiary from principal or income for which the trust
10 receives a deduction in calculating the tax.
11         -506  Adjustments between principal and income because
12 of taxes.(a)  A fiduciary may make adjustments between
13 principal and income to offset the shifting of economic interests
14 or tax benefits between income beneficiaries and remainder
15 beneficiaries which arise from:
16      (1)  Elections and decisions, other than those described in
17           subsection (b), that the fiduciary makes from time to
18           time regarding tax matters;
19      (2)  An income tax or any other tax that is imposed upon the
20           fiduciary or a beneficiary as a result of a transaction
21           involving or a distribution from the estate or trust;
22           or
23      (3)  The ownership by an estate or trust of an interest in

Page 43                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           an entity whose taxable income, whether or not
 2           distributed, is includable in the taxable income of the
 3           estate, trust, or a beneficiary.
 4      (b)  If the amount of an estate tax marital deduction or
 5 charitable contributions deduction is reduced because a fiduciary
 6 deducts an amount that is paid from principal for income tax
 7 purposes instead of deducting it for estate tax purposes, and as
 8 a result, estate taxes paid from principal are increased and
 9 income taxes paid by an estate, trust, or beneficiary are
10 decreased, each estate, trust, or beneficiary that benefits from
11 the decrease in income tax shall reimburse the principal from
12 which the increase in estate tax is paid.  The total
13 reimbursement shall equal the increase in the estate tax to the
14 extent that the principal used to pay the increase would have
15 qualified for a marital deduction or charitable contributions
16 deduction but for the payment.  The proportionate share of the
17 reimbursement for each estate, trust, or beneficiary whose income
18 taxes are reduced shall be the same as its proportionate share of
19 the total decrease in income tax.  An estate or trust shall
20 reimburse principal from income."
21      SECTION 2.  Section 554A-3, Hawaii Revised Statutes, is
22 amended by amending subsection (c) to read as follows:
23      "(c)  A trustee has the power, subject to subsections (a)

Page 44                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1 and (b):
 2      (1)  To collect, hold, and retain trust assets received from
 3           a trustor until, in the judgment of the trustee,
 4           disposition of the assets should be made;
 5      (2)  To receive additions to the assets of the trust;
 6      (3)  To continue or participate in the operation of any
 7           business or other enterprise, and to effect
 8           incorporation, dissolution, or other change in the form
 9           of the organization of the business or enterprise;
10      (4)  To invest and reinvest trust assets in accordance with
11           the provisions of the trust or as provided by law;
12      (5)  To deposit trust funds in a bank;
13      (6)  To acquire or dispose of an asset, for cash or on
14           credit, at public or private sale; and to manage,
15           develop, improve, exchange, partition, change the
16           character of, or abandon a trust asset or any interest
17           therein; and to encumber, mortgage, or pledge a trust
18           asset for a term within or extending beyond the term of
19           the trust, in connection with the exercise of any power
20           vested in the trustee;
21      (7)  To make ordinary or extraordinary repairs or
22           alterations in buildings or other structures, to
23           demolish any improvements, or to raze existing or erect

Page 45                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           new party walls or buildings;
 2      (8)  To subdivide, develop, or dedicate land to public use;
 3           or to make or obtain the vacation of plats and adjust
 4           boundaries; or to adjust differences in valuation on
 5           exchange or partition by giving or receiving
 6           consideration; or to dedicate easements to public use
 7           without consideration;
 8      (9)  To enter for any purpose into a lease as lessor or
 9           lessee with or without option to purchase or renew for
10           a term within or extending beyond the term of the
11           trust;
12     (10)  To enter into a lease or arrangement for exploration
13           and removal of minerals or other natural resources or
14           enter into a pooling or unitization agreement;
15     (11)  To grant an option involving disposition of a trust
16           asset or to take an option for the acquisition of any
17           asset;
18     (12)  To vote a security, in person or by general or limited
19           proxy;
20     (13)  To pay calls, assessments, and any other sums
21           chargeable or accruing against or on account of
22           securities;
23     (14)  To sell or exercise stock subscription or conversion

Page 46                                                    2143 
                                     H.B. NO.           H.D. 1

 1           rights; to consent, directly or through a committee or
 2           other agent, to the reorganization, consolidation,
 3           merger, dissolution, or liquidation of a corporation or
 4           other business enterprise;
 5     (15)  To hold a security in the name of a nominee or in other
 6           form without disclosure of the trust, so that title to
 7           the security may pass by delivery, but the trustee is
 8           liable for any act of the nominee in connection with
 9           the stock so held;
10     (16)  To insure the assets of the trust against damage or
11           loss, and the trustee against liability with respect to
12           third persons;
13     (17)  To borrow money to be repaid from trust assets or
14           otherwise; to advance money for the protection of the
15           trust, and for all expenses, losses, and liabilities
16           sustained in the administration of the trust or because
17           of the holding or ownership of any trust assets, for
18           which advances with any interest the trustee has a lien
19           on the trust assets as against the beneficiary;
20     (18)  To pay or contest any claim; to settle a claim by or
21           against the trust by compromise, arbitration, or
22           otherwise; and to release, in whole or in part, any
23           claim belonging to the trust to the extent that the

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 1           claim is uncollectible;
 2     (19)  To pay taxes, assessments, compensation of the trustee,
 3           and other expenses incurred in the collection, care,
 4           administration, and protection of the trust;
 5     (20)  To allocate items of income or expense to either trust
 6           income or principal, as provided by chapter [557, the
 7           Revised]    , the Uniform Principal and Income Act,
 8           including creation of reserves out of income for
 9           depreciation, obsolescence, or amortization, or for
10           depletion in mineral or timber properties;
11     (21)  To pay any sum distributable to a beneficiary under
12           legal disability, without liability to the trustee, by
13           paying the sum to the beneficiary or by paying the sum
14           for the use of the beneficiary either to a legal
15           representative appointed by the court, or if none, to a
16           relative;
17     (22)  To effect distribution of money and property (that may
18           be made in kind on a pro rata or non-pro rata basis),
19           in divided or undivided interests, and to adjust
20           resulting differences in valuation;
21     (23)  To employ persons, including attorneys, auditors,
22           investment advisors, or agents, even if they are
23           associated with the trustee, to advise or assist the

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 1           trustee in performance of the trustee's administrative
 2           duties; to act without independent investigation upon
 3           their recommendations; and instead of acting
 4           personally, to employ one or more agents to perform any
 5           act of administration, whether or not discretionary;
 6     (24)  To prosecute or defend actions, claims, or proceedings
 7           for the protection of trust assets and of the trustee
 8           in the performance of trustee duties; and
 9     (25)  To execute and deliver all instruments that will
10           accomplish or facilitate the exercise of the powers
11           vested in the trustee."
12      SECTION 3.  Chapter 557, Hawaii Revised Statutes, is
13 repealed.
14      SECTION 4.  This Act applies to every trust or decedent's
15 estate as of the beginning of an accounting period of the trust
16 or estate following the effective date of this Act except as
17 otherwise expressly provided in the will or terms of the trust or
18 in this Act.
19      SECTION 5.  Statutory material to be repealed is bracketed.
20 New statutory material is underscored.
21      SECTION 6.  This Act shall take effect on July 1, 2000.